James Watt was born in Greenock, Scotland, in 1736. He learned as an
apprentice of a mathematical-instrument maker at the age of nineteen.
After 1773, Watt's steam-engines were bought to miners in order for them to pump out the water. Watt's machine was 4 times more powerful than the ones based on Thomas Newcomen's design.
In 1781, James Watt produced a rotary-motion steam engine. His earlier machine, with its up-and-down pumping action, was ideal for draining mines,
but this new steam engine could be used to drive many different types of machinery. Richard Arkwright
utilized this new invention in his textile factories in 1783. Many
others bought this improved steam engine and by 1800, there were over 500 of Watt's machines in Britain's mines and factories.
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