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During this time of industrialization, the population bloomed. From 1750 to 1850, the European population nearly doubled. Many of these people moved to urban areas where there were jobs. There were 22 cities in 1800 with a population of more than 100,000. In 1850, there were 47. Many doubled and tripled in size.

 

1837-41

population growth

housing growth rate

Glasgow

37%

18.5%

Manchester

47%

15 %

Bradford

78%

12 %

However, this urbanization led to a series of major crisis. It was impossible to accommodate all the people. Houses were built rapidly and some quite carelessly. Accidents would take over 50 lives at times. Since the area for housing development was not adequate to house the population, severe overcrowding resulted.

In 1840

15,000 persons in Manchester lived in cellars

 

39,000 persons in Liverpool lived in 7,800 cellars

 

86,000 persons in Liverpool lived in 2,400 courts

The sewage system was inadequate. Drainage was bad and pipes would burst. Some areas didnít have plumbing at all. There was also no way to dispose trash. Garbage lined ditches in the streets and around buildings. Streets were in disrepair.


Epidemics were common. Although the plague virtually disappeared in 1666,the cities were exceedingly filthy. Besides the horrible population from factories, waste littered the streets. Outbreaks of typhus (also known as gaol fever) were frequent and smallpox epidemics broke out regularly, killing 1 in 9 victims. Medical provision was very basic (again, by our standards). No anaesthetics existed; surgery was primitive; hospitals were few and depended for funding on charity, and often were in poor condition.

London's death rate was very high at 35.3 per 1,000. The infant mortality rate was also high: 437 per 1,000 children born, died before they reached the age of 2.

Average age of death in 1842

 

Manchester

Leeds

Liverpool

Rutland

Gentlemen and professional people

38

44

35

52

Tradesmen

20

27

26

41

Labourers

17

19

15

39

However, these problems did lead to solutions. By the end of the 19th century, plumbing was placed and fixed in many parts of town. Waste disposal was also presented. Streets were fixed and paved. Drains along the streets were made. There was still a problem in the slums. Overcrowding wasnít fixed. Housing was still poor. People crowded the streets of the slums.

 [Daily Life of the People in the Industrial Revolution]






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